Tegtmejer, T. (2019). ADHD as a classroom diagnosis. An exploratory study of teachers’ strategies for addressing “ADHD classroom behaviour.” Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties, 24(3), 239–253. https://doi-org.libserv-prd.bridgew.edu/10.1080/13632752.2019.1609271
Tegtmejer argues that using disruptive techniques and closely managing students with ADHD is not helpful for both ADHD and Neurotypical students; they argue that having highly structured classes is not beneficial for any of the students, including the ADHD ones. Tegtmejer also brings up in their study how useful ignoring the student, using a bit of structure, and using small messages with physical contact is to get an ADHD student to stay on track. Tegtmejer got the information for their study by observing to Danish classrooms over a period of 24 days where any interaction by the teacher to the ADHD student was written down, they also interviewed the teachers and students of the two classes. This article talks about how the idea that ADHD students need to be in a highly structured environment in order to learn should be challenged because their study found the opposite. This study suggests that teachers need to stray away from structured learning and should instead use multiple strategies to connect to their ADHD students and to help them stay engaged in class. I find this article helpful because it reaffirms my thoughts on how ADHD should be handled in the classroom, the student should not be alienated from their classmates they just need a bit more help and guidance to stay engaged which is what this study talks about.
Evans, R., Brown, R., Rees, G., & Smith, P. (2017). Systematic Review of Educational Interventions for Looked-After Children and Young People: Recommendations for Intervention Development and Evaluation. British Educational Research Journal, 43(1), 68–94.
Summary: This British Educational Research Journal article “Systematic Review of Educational Interventions for Looked-After Children and Young People: Recommendations for Intervention Development and Evaluation” discusses the educationally disadvantaged group of people ``looked-after children and young people” (LACYPD). These studies include elementary age foster students and includes studies of interventions and their outcomes to improve their academic success.
Review: This article seemed useful in explaining possible interventions to help elementary school aged foster children improve their reading writing skills (such as one-one one tutoring and…) However the conclusions of the study were not proved and there was no evidence of effectiveness because of “variable methodological quality, as appraised by the Cochrane risk of bias tool” (Evans, 2017, p.68). This would have been a more ideal source if the interventions were proved successful though they are still applicable to improving elementary school students reading and writing skills.
Application: There was one classroom-based programme intervention conducted in this study called Kids in Transition to School in which “Children attend 24 sessions that address early literacy skills, prosocial skills and self-regulatory activities” (Evans, 2017, p.72). Tutoring and mentoring-relationships in all areas of academic were also interventions used to help the LACYPD students. Evans stated, “In the ESTEP programme young people meet with a tutor twice a week within the care setting, and receive up to 50 hours of tutoring in a math, spelling, reading and vocabulary curriculum” (2017, p,72). Offering extra help, or one-on-one time to work with elementary age students to practice their reading and writing after/before school could prove helpful. Summer programs that give underserved foster care elementary school students more time to develop their reading and writing skills may also be useful to their overall academic achievement.
Mott, R., Keller, K., Britt, R. J., & Ball, A. (2018). ‘Out of Place around Other People’: Experiences of Young People Who Live with Food Insecurity. Children & Society, 32(3), 207–218. https://doi-org.libserv-prd.bridgew.edu/10.1111/chso.12270
In the article “‘Out of Place around Other People’: Experiences of Young People Who Live with Food Insecurity,” Mott, Keller, Britt, and Ball make the argument that food insecurity is caused by a multitude of factors, which affect both children and adults alike. More specifically, when looking at a population of 11 to 14 year old students, the main concern voiced is that these students don't feel understood or even comfortable around other students their age because they are embarrassed of their financial situation. The authors come to this conclusion by taking the population of middle school students from rural Missouri-- who were enrolled in enrichment programs. The researchers asked them a series of questions which gave them insights on the difficulties they face when dealing with food insecurity. This article is particularly important because it allows students in this age range to let their voices be heard-- in hopes that teachers will become more mindful when they are faced with a student with food insecurity. As a future educator, this article is especially useful because it allows you to look into the specific feelings of students who experience food insecurity. This article opened my eyes to the struggles these students face and their dire need for someone who shows that they care enough about their well-being to help them stay healthy.
The authors’ main argument in this article is that ADHD has been associated with a lower GPA and a more negative classroom experience. They think that in order to increase task motivation, and improve academic performance of individuals with ADHD, it may be important to include rewarded task elements as they are appraised as particularly motivating by these individuals and this appraisal was similar to that of typically developing peers. The study that was done in this article is called Child and Adolescent Motivational Profile (CHAMP), which is a questionnaire to access the extent to which children and adolescents find tasks with different characteristics more or less motivating. The authors wanted to study: (1) which task characteristic participants with ADHD perceive as most motivating relative to typically developing peers (TDP) and (2) whether these differences mediate academic functioning. The significance behind this article is that academic impairment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is in part due to reduced motivation for academic tasks, which is likely to vary as a function of task characteristics. For the research that my group is participating in, this article is significant because it can support us increasing an assignment for the classroom that will be motivating for students with ADHD to partake in.. In the research, both the ADHD and the control group found that marked/graded, collaborative, and rewarded were the most motivating task characteristics. This article is very beneficial for me to read, as I am soon going to be an elementary school classroom teacher. I need to be knowledgable on how to support my students, whether they have a disability or not. Since it was founded in the research that task chracteristics such as marked/graded, collaborative, and reward were the most motivating, I can then use what I learned from this article and apply those motivations in my own classroom.
Morsink, S., Sonuga-Barke, E., Van der Oord, S., Van Dessel, J., Lemiere, J., & Danckaerts, M. (2020, March 10). Task-related motivation and academic achievement in children and adolescents with ADHD. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(1), 131-141. doi:https://doi-org.libserv- prd.bridgew.edu/10.1007/s00787-020-01494-8
Newman, B. M. (2003). Centering in the borderlands: lessons from Hispanic student writers. Writing Center Journal, 23(2), 43+.
In this article, Beatrice Newman discusses how writing centers provide Hispanic immigrant students the opportunity to improve their writing and meet the requirements of their instructors. To make her point, Newman uses her experience as a writing instructor when she instructed 3 different students. She develops a discussion by bringing her own interpretation as to what their professors were lacking when instructing them and how she was able to help their writing out. This article is important because it educates the reader on the culture of Hispanic people and how that affects students to lack the skills they might to succeed academically. I find this article useful because it provides several suggestions regarding how to provide feedback to the writing of Hispanic students since the issues tend not to only be grammatically, but also it terms of the structure of sentences—the sentences make sense in their language, but when read in English, they are off.
Tyre, A. D. (2012). Educational Supports for Middle School Youths Involved in the Foster Care System. Children & Schools, 34(4), 231–238. https://doi-org.libserv-prd.bridgew.edu/10.1093/cs/cds009
Ashley D. Tyre begins her paper by speaking on the fact that there is not enough literature and conversation surrounding the problem of foster children having poor educational outcomes, despite there being a vast array of information on the matter prior to her writing this article. Tyre suggests that the main cause of these foster children’s academic failures can be attributed to their experience with trauma, neglect, and instability they have experienced throughout their lives. To combat this problem, Tyre offers an insight to two educational models that, when combined, can help foster care students overcome their educational shortcomings with their reading comprehension skills. The first educational model is called, The Educational Liaison (EL) which is a program that allows teachers and social workers to meet and discuss a specific child’s needs as well as possible solutions. The second model is called, educational success program (ESP) which has a teacher and tutor act as a stable adult mentor within the foster child’s life. These models were tested on middle school foster youths, 30% of whom were under the 25th percentile of students found themselves improving their reading fluency while 28% improved their reading comprehension. The research conducted by Tyre offers a view into the struggles foster students face in and out of school as well as what can be done to help these students thrive in school. This article is helpful in identifying a possible way to help middle school children in foster care close the educational gap that sits between them and their peers through the creation of stronger reading skills.
Citation: Lubienski, S. T., & Crane, C. C. (2010) Beyond free lunch: Which family background measures matter? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 18(11). Retrieved [date], from http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/756
In the article “Beyond Free Lunch: Which Family Background Measures Matter?” by Sarah Theule Lubienski and Corinna Crawford Crane there is a major focus on a family’s SES (socio-economic status) and how it connects with student achievement. Lubienski and Crawford take a closer look at previous research done in regards to proving each student’s success, based upon the statistics of their parents. One of the major aspects they looked at was a student's eligibility for free lunch in school. They acknowledge that SES is a “touchy subject” but with their research they show the influence it really has on students. Their study is to record and show which variables in a student’s home reflects directly onto the student’s school experiences, achievements, and their own SES. The research is done with the focus being children in the classroom. A section in this study that will help me prove my point is that there was research done in a kindergarten classroom where their reading skills were being evaluated and recorded. After conducting the data it was found that students who did not qualify for free lunch at school scored higher on their reading than students who did qualify for school lunches. It helps prove the point that food insecurity at home does influence these students at school.
This article covers how schools are dealing with hunger that some students may face on a daily basis. Within it, it says how teachers are often spending their own money to keep students from going without food. There are some solutions that the article lists so teachers are not spending their own money and children are not going without food on a daily basis. The solutions range from collecting unused and untouched food, freezing it and sending it home with students, to larger solutions, like Feeding America, a mobile pantry that fills bags for families. Some of the larger ideas are how families cannot afford healthy food options and that fast food is cheaper causing children to not get the proper nutrition. Ideas of how to stop children and the hunger they may face is a large topic, the article offers lots of advice and tips that are both inexpensive and less embarrassing for the children that have to use that option.
I only have two at the moment because it was hard to find some on my topic, but I am still looking for one more.
Callahan, Rebecca, et al. “School Context and the Effect of ESL Placement on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Achievement.” Social Science Quarterly (Wiley-Blackwell), vol. 89, no. 1, Mar. 2008, pp. 177–198. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1540-6237.2008.00527.x.
This journal article, by Callahan, spoke out on the troubles many Mexican families faced when coming to an English-speaking country. It was said to be simpler if the second and third generations were also attending schools in which English was being taught, but being the only one as a first year, led to many challenges. This article argues the stance that certain schools focus more so on ESL as opposed to others with lower concentrations on it. I will focus on the higher and lower concentration programs and how learning ESL is most beneficial to many, especially the Mexican immigrants referred to in the article.
Bartvedt, Alf. “Teaching about the United States in Norwegian Upper Secondary Schools: Suggested Course Outlines for English as a Foreign Language.” Social Studies, vol. 77, no. 1, Jan. 1986, pp. 41–43. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=31h&AN=45987822&site=ehost-live.
Although much of the information is hard to find at the moment, Bartvedt discussed Norwegian schools educating their students on the English language, as well as American itself. This journal was particularly interesting due to the stance that they were teaching English in a foreign school and to become educated based on American culture. This journal, I will be able to argue and explain the reasoning as to why it is taught in Norway and the educational benefits it has on foreign countries entering into a different country with a different vocabulary.
Wedge, M. (2014). Rich Kid, Poor Kid. N.p.: Psychology Today.
“Rich Kid, Poor Kid”, written by Dr. Marilyn Wedge, details the relationship between the access to stimulant drugs that treat ADHD and poverty. In 2003 George Bush signed the “No Child Left Behind Act” which resulted in incentives for underfunded schools to have more ADHD diagnoses, and by 2007 there was a 59% increase in ADHD diagnoses in poorer schools who were included in the NCLB program. Wedge uses the results of research on the NCLB program to illustrate how much easier it is for poorer students to get diagnosed and treated for ADHD and how initially it was considered positive, but a closer look at ADHD drugs shows how harmful they can be. This article highlights the harm that students who live in impoverished communities face, the chances of being drugged because it’s “easier” to write children off this way and be rewarded for it are too high. It’s important for future educators to understand this disparity so that we can do whatever we can to actively work against drugging healthy students who do not need ADHD medications.
Ernst, G. (1994). Beyond Language: The Many Dimensions of an ESL Program. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 25(3), 317-335. Retrieved April 22, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3195849
In this journal article, Gisela Ernest looks at and analyzes ESL programs in Elementary school classrooms, looking specifically for what works to better teach children who are still learning the English language. In order to complete this study, the researcher observed classrooms with ESL students and recorded interactions between teachers and students in various formats. The article points out that students who are still learning English often struggle in the American school setting, so researching and learning what works to help them can aid in their education and keep those students from being left to fall through the cracks of the American education system. I know that as a teacher, I will be working with students from all different backgrounds, and ESL students will undoubtedly be part of the classroom population. Knowing what works for ESL students will better allow me to help them as their teacher, to thrive in the classroom.
Harris, Muriel, and Tony Silva. “Tutoring ESL Students: Issues and Options.” College Composition and Communication, vol. 44, no. 4, 4 Dec. 1993, p. 525., doi:10.2307/358388.
Muriel and Silva analyze the researched benefits and challenges encompassing the tutoring of adult ESL students. They argue ESL tutors should be cognizant of the main linguistic challenges of English, highlight the strengths of a student’s work, cultivate pre-writing strategies, focus on rhetorical concerns over grammatical errors, and encourage proofreading. They incorporate research about individualized instruction into their argument and construct their article using a series of descriptive subheadings. Their work serves as a resource for ESL educators and professionals seeking guidance for effective teaching strategies. This article is useful for my research because it shows the main challenges that ESL students face and provides directive guidance on how to help students mitigate those challenges.
Instruction for College Students with Learning Disabilities and ADHD: Lessons Learned From a Model Demonstration Project. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice (Wiley-Blackwell), 20(2), 103–118. https://doi-org.libserv-prd.bridgew.edu/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2005.00126.x
This 3-year Model Demonstration Project involved the development and field testing of an individualized course-specific strategy instruction model with college students with learning disabilities and ADHD. There were 46 participants who received individualized strategy instruction at three different postsecondary institutions. The study used informal assessments of a student’s learning needs that is tied to learning strategy intervention. To develop individualized instructional plans for each student, they found that they could not rely solely on the results of formal evaluations. Instead, select learning strategies that meet the unique needs of each student based on the results of the informal assessment were used as they relate to the specific demands of each student’s courses. The instruments used in the project included an informal learning needs questionnaire, strategy instructor and participant evaluation forms, and strategy instruction session logs. This article does an interesting job distinguishing the types of ADHD students and how they perform in education based on their different backgrounds.
Bell, D. & Bogan, B.L. (2013). “English language learners: problems and solutions found in the research of general practitioners of early childhood” in e-Journal of Balanced Literacy Research and Instruction 1 (2), article 5. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/jblri/vol1/iss2/.
In Bell and Bogan’s journal article, “English Language Learners: Problems and Solutions Found in the Research of General Practitioners of Early Childhood,” the authors argue that early childhood teachers lack the training and preparation necessary for accommodating the quickly growing population of young English Language Learners in classrooms. To make their point, Bell and Bogan consider the challenges concerning young ELL students, including cultural disconnects, lack of success in peer relationships, and overall, the lack of preparation in educators. Bell and Bogan conducted a critical examination of literature in order to harvest basic solutions for educators, those encompassing programmatic aspects, teaching training, and classroom pedagogy. This article brings together various research to offer coherent and realistic solutions for educators struggling to satisfy all students in their classroom, especially ELLs. I found this article to be useful because it clearly lays out all the challenges and subsequent solutions that will help me to thoroughly accommodate future ELLs in my classroom.
Nagin, Carl and the National Writing Project (2006). “Improving Student Writing: Challenges and Expectations” in Because Writing Matters: Improving Student Writing in Our Schools (2006).San Fancisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
In this the first chapter of Nagin’s text, he argues that writing is a complex task requiring careful, complex instruction in order to reach any sort of standard set for student writers. To make his point, Nagin considers writing, the skill, and writing instruction through a variety of lenses: 1) how educators see the challenges of writing; 2) how educators need to be trained to and supported in the teaching of writing; and 3) how the public values writing (very highly). Nagin brings in diverse research from leading scholars in the field of Rhetoric and Composition as well as Education to support the essential idea that good writing requires students have the opportunity to write in diverse genre, with individualized attention to skill level, evaluated in authentic ways; and that teachers need training in the above areas in order to teach them. This article brings together key theories and theorists (no surprise since the book is co-authored by the National Writing Project) and offers a cogent and realistic view of just how hard it is to teach writing skills—as well as how hard it is to help teachers be ready to do it. If find this article useful because it validates my own thinking on writing and helps me to understand the level of training I want to be a part of in order to be the best teacher I can be.
McMillen, C. J., & Tucker, J. (1999, May 1). The Status of Older Adolescents at Exit from Out-of-Home Care. Child Welfare, 78(3), 339-360.
This article analyzes the possible effects that living in foster care can have on teenagers post- High school graduation. The article sees older youths as the best insight since they will soon be living and working on their own. The article creates many arguments over the topic. At first, the writer makes a statement that the adults raising the teens in out-of-home care are the ones responsible for youths developing positively. However, the article also states that administrators have also reported negative results. Studies were done and determined that teens previously living in foster care resulted in lower cases of employment as well as lack of further education. Further studies have also determined that a very high rate of teenage foster children complete High school. Studies and arguments aside, this articles point is that teenage foster youths need more independence and adaquete skills taught to them in order for them to be successful once they reach legal age.
Borjian, A., & Padilla, A. (2010). Voices from Mexico: How American Teachers can Meet the Needs of Mexican Immigrant Students. Urban Review, 42(4), 316–328. https://doi-org.libserv-prd.bridgew.edu/10.1007/s11256-009-0135-0
This source explores both ESL teachers in Mexico and teachers of immigrant students in the United States. The article explains that many families flee from Mexico due to economic hardship and often come to the United States with a disadvantage academically due to differences in teaching, language barriers, etc. Schools in the United States may not be prepared for these students’ needs and emphasizes the importance of programs to make sure that these needs are met; and that the needs rely heavily on the effectiveness of the teachers in the school.
Conger, D., & Finkelstein, M. (2003). Foster Care and School Mobility. The Journal of Negro
Education, 72(1), 97-103. doi:10.2307/3211293.
In Conger and Finkelstein’s journal, the authors discuss the issues that surround foster children; therefore, they experience high rates of school mobility. They also bring up potential solutions. By addressing the difficulties that these children face, Conger and Finkelstein bring in studies from the commissioners of New York City child welfare agency, the Administration for Children Services, and the Department of Education. They come up with solutions such as 1) preventing school transfer, 2) ensuring that children are placed in their home neighborhood, and 3) basic training for teachers on the structures and various functions of the child welfare system. This journal brings together studies from different educational research and services programs to support its argument. It also offers different perspectives on how to better foster children’s circumstances. I find this article useful because it builds up my argument on what foster children go through when they are forced to move home from home. Another bonus is that this article also provides solutions to the situation and how teachers can help.
Vera, E. M., Israel, M. S., Coyle, L., Cross, J., Knight-Lynn, L., Moallem, I., Bartucci, G., & Goldberger, N. (2012). Exploring the Educational Involvement of Parents of English Learners. School Community Journal, 22(2), 183–202.
The argument of this article is to examine the relationships among a range of specific barriers and facilitators of parent involvement and a variety of types of school involvement within a diverse group of immigrant parents of (ELs) in four elementary school districts. This study features ideas of the design and implementation of interventions (e.g., parent programs, school policy changes) with the goal of increasing the parental involvement of EL students because parent involvement is crucial to the EL learner.
Lahaie Claudia. (2008). School Readiness of Children of Immigrants: Does Parental Involvement Play a Role? Social Science Quarterly, 89(3), 684–705.
This article argues that Parental involvement decreases the gap in math scores between children of immigrants and children of the native born by a third of a standard deviation. Parental involvement appears to benefit children of immigrants and given that they have lower academic achievement than children of the native born, and suggests that policies and practices targeting children of immigrants could help decrease the academic achievement gap between children of immigrants and children of the native born.
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